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Practical Science – Useful & Social



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The Protestant Reformation, begun by Martin Luther in 1517, radically transformed the theological and political landscape of Europe. Many Europeans began to question the authority of the Church.

The Scientific Revolution began in Europe toward the end of the Renaissance period, and continued through the late 18th century, influencing the intellectual social movement known as the Enlightenment.

Much of the work done during the latter sixteenth and seventeenth century is still considered the foundation of the major fields of modern science, including physics, chemistry, biology, and astronomy.

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The French used the term philosophe (philosopher) to describe the thinkers of the age. The philosophes were committed to bringing new thought to all of Europe. They wanted to educate the economic and social elite but not necessarily the masses. Philosophes, who were not allowed to criticize either the Church or state openly, circulated their work in the form of books, plays, novels, dictionaries, and encyclopaedias; using satire and double meaning to spread their messages and thus preventing their writings from being burned or banned.

Salons, gatherings organized by wealthy women held in large drawing rooms in their homes, were also used to help philosophes avoid trouble with authorities. At these meetings, philosophes would gather to discuss politics. philosophy, and current issues. These discussions allowed the writers greater freedom to spread their words. Enlightened thinkers considered themselves part of an intellectual community. They shared their ideas through books, personal letters, and visits back and forth amongst themselves, to reason out the true facts and published them.

I have listed all the principle Electrical Pioneers and Inventors, and the setting up of The Royal Society. There are cutaway drawings of the National Grid, Coal Mines, Power Lines, and the Generation of Electricity, Chapters Electricity: Scientific Revolution 1-30; Fossil Fuels 31-40; Atomic Power & National Grid